Industrial Ecology and Symbiosis – Importance, Mechanism and Challenges


The expansion of economic activity in recent decades has been accompanied by growing environmental concerns on a global level. These include climate change, energy security and increasing resource scarcity.

Since Manufacturing industries account for a significant part of the world’s consumption of resources and energy, and generation of waste, the need for sustainable manufacturing and eco-industry has sprung in order to shift the track of economic growth into a green one. Manufacturing industries have the potential to become a driving force for realizing a sustainable society by introducing efficient production practices and developing products and services that help reduce negative impacts on the environment. This, however, requires the adoption of business approaches that place high emphasis on environmental and social aspects as well as economic concerns.

Such practices include the establishment of industrial ecosystems that aim to reduce pollution and waste, use energy efficiently, reach sustainable development as well as…

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